Emmy Noether-Nachwuchsgruppe

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Heidelberg University
Institute of Earth Sciences
Im Neuenheimer Feld 234
69120 Heidelberg

Phone: +49 6221 54-5983
Fax: +49 6221 54-5503


Past Ocean Dynamics

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The 231Pa/230Th circulation proxy is based on the idea of measuring the 231Pa and 230Th generated by the decay of dissolved 235U and 234U in the overlying water column (so called excess fraction). However, there are also fractions of 231Pa and 230Th in the sediment not originating from the water column. There is a detrital and an authigenic fraction as well, which needs to be corrected for. The underlying assumptions for these corrections have been presented by Henderson and Anderson (2003), which have been later refined by Bourne et al. (2012).

Since the final 231Pa/230Th (excess) ratio is a result of these assumptions and calculations it is important to provide the raw data of isotopic concentrations to allow independent re-calculations. Thus, we provide here a (frequently updated) .txt-file for download containing the sedimentary concentrations of 231Pa, 230Th, 238U,232Th, sample depth, age and references from all data generated by our working group within the last years with focus on the Atlantic Ocean.


Download Pa/Th Data compilation



Today the 231Pa/230Th circulation proxy is an invaluable tool in paleoceanography, although measuring it is still a demanding analytical task (in particular 231Pa). Besides the usually extreme low quantities of 231Pa in any material another problem is the inexistence of another long-living protactinium isotope (the most stable one is 233Pa with a half-live of 27 days). In the past measurements have been performed by counting α- and β-decays of the sample. While ICP-MS has been emerged as the method of choice nowadays there have been also successful attempts by TIMS and even AMS.

However, reconstructing ocean circulation was not the first application of 231Pa and 230Th in marine science. Since the pioneering studies on the contents of 231Pa in sea-water and sediments in the sixties and seventies both radio-isotopes have been mostly used for the purposes of dating and assessing particle fluxes. In particular the work by Robert Anderson in the eighties was groundbreaking for understanding their cycling in the ocean. It was not before 1996, until 231Pa/230Th was used the first time in order to reconstruct ocean circulation by Ein-Fen Yu, Roger Francois and Michael Bacon. They examined the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning (AMOC) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Underpinned by theoretical considerations in 2000 by Olivier Marchal, Roger Francois, Thomas Stocker and Fortunat Joos it took another eight years until the first high-resolution down-core profile of 231Pa/230Th was measured from the Atlantic Ocean and interpreted as a record of past AMOC strength (McManus et al. 2004).

Please find in the following a non-exhaustive list of publications dealing with 231Pa/230Th in paleoceanography and beyond. The items of this list span many aspects related to 231Pa/230Th and may provide a helpful introduction to this topic. Please don’t hesitate to inform us about publications we might have missed (E-Mail Thank you.


  • Levier, M., Roy-Barman, M., Foliot, L., Dapoigny, A., & Lacan, F. 2023. Distribution of Pa in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: Tracking scavenging during water mass mixing along neutral density surfaces. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 194, 103951.


  • Zheng, J., Chen, T., Ng, H.C., Robinson, L., Zheng, X.Y.,  Shi, X., Huang, M. 2022 Determination of Picogram-per-Gram Concentrations of 231Pa and 230Th in Sediments by Melt Quenching and Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry, Analytical Chemistry, 15, 2013–2033.
  • Sasaki, Y., Kobayashi, H., and Oka, A. 2022 Global simulation of dissolved 231Pa and 230Th in the ocean and the sedimentary 231Pa∕230Th ratios with the ocean general circulation model COCO ver4.0, Geoscientific Model Development, 15, 2013–2033.
  • Schimmenti, D., F. Marcantonio, C.T. Hayes, J. Hertzberg, M. Schmidt, and J. Sarao. 2022 Insights into the deglacial variability of phytoplankton community structure in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean using [231Pa/230Th]xs and opal-carbonate fluxes, Scientific Reports, 12(1).


  • Roy-Barman, M., Foliot, L., Douville, E., Leblond, N., Gazeau, F., Bressac, M., Wagener, T., Ridame, C., Desboeufs, K., and Guieu, C. 2021 Contrasted release of insoluble elements (Fe, Al, rare earth elements, Th, Pa) after dust deposition in seawater: a tank experiment approach, Biogeosciences, 18, 2663–2678.
  • Kipp, L.E., McManus, J.F., Kienast, M., 2021. Radioisotope constraints of Arctic deep water export to the North Atlantic. Nature Communications 12, 3658.
  • Chen, S.-Y.S., Marchal, O., Lerner, P.E., McCorkle, D.C. and Rutgers van der Loeff, M.M., 2021. On the cycling of 231Pa and 230Th in benthic nepheloid layers. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 177: 103627.
  •  Luo, Y., Lippold, J., Allen, S.E., Tjiputra, J., Jaccard, S.L. and Francois, R., 2021. The influence of deep water circulation on the distribution of 231Pa and 230Th in the Pacific Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 554: 116674.
  • Ronge, T.A., Lippold, J., Geibert, W., Jaccard, S.L., Mieruch-Schnülle, S., Süfke, F. and Tiedemann, R., 2021. Deglacial patterns of South Pacific overturning inferred from 231Pa and 230Th. Scientific Reports, 11(1): 20473.
  • Xu, Q., Xiao, W., Wang, R., Süfke, F., Lippold, J. and Not, C., 2021. Driving Mechanisms of Sedimentary 230Th and 231Pa Variability in the Western Arctic Ocean Through the Last Glacial Cycle. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 36, 7.
  • Zhang, X., Yang, W., Qiu, Y. and Zheng, M., 2021. Adsorption of Th and Pa onto particles and the effect of organic compounds in natural seawater. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology.


  • Pavia, F. J., Anderson, R. F., Pinedo‐Gonzalez, P., Fleisher, M. Q., Brzezinski, M. A., & Robinson, R. S,. 2020. Isopycnal transport and scavenging of 230Th and 231Pa in the Pacific Southern Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34.
  • Ng, H.C., Robinson, L.F., Rowland, G.H., Chen, S.S. and McManus, J.F., 2020. Coupled analysis of seawater and sedimentary 231Pa/230Th in the tropical Atlantic. Marine Chemistry: 103894.
  • Gu, S., Liu, Z., Oppo, D. W., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Jahn, A., Zhang, J., and Wu, L., 2020, Assessing the potential capability of reconstructing glacial Atlantic water masses and AMOC using multiple proxies in CESM: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 541, p. 116294.
  • Pinedo-González, P., Anderson, R.F., Vivancos, S.M., Pavia, F.J. and Fleisher, M.Q., 2020. A new method to extract 232Th, 230Th and 231Pa from seawater using a bulk-extraction technique with Nobias PA-1 chelating resin. Talanta: 121734.
  • Missiaen L., Menviel L. C., Meissner K. J., Roche D. M., Dutay J.-C., Bouttes N., Lhardy F., Quiquet A., Pichat S. and Waelbroeck C., 2020. Modelling the impact of biogenic particle flux intensity and composition on sedimentary Pa/Th. Quaternary Science Reviews 240, 106394.
  • Missiaen L., Bouttes N., Roche D. M., Dutay J.-C., Quiquet A., Waelbroeck C., Pichat S., and Peterschmitt J.-Y., 2020. Carbon isotopes and Pa∕Th response to forced circulation changes: a model perspective. Climate of the Past, 16, 867-883.
  • Costa K. M., Hayes C. M., Anderson R. F., Pavia F. J., Bausch A., Deng F., Dutay J.-C., Geibert W., Heinze C., Henderson G., Hillaire‐Marcel C., Hoffmann S., Jaccard S. L., Jacobel A. W., Kienast S. S., Kipp L., Lerner P., Lippold J., Lund D., Marcantonio F., McGee D., McManus J. F., Mekik F., Middleton J. L., Missiaen L., Not C., Pichat S., Robinson L. F., Rowland G. H., Roy‐Barman M., Tagliabue A., Torfstein A., Winckler G. and Zhou Y., 2020. 230Th normalization: New insights on an essential tool for quantifying sedimentary fluxes in the modern and Quaternary ocean. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 35, e2019PA003820.
  • Süfke F., Schulz H., Scheen J., Szidat S., Regelous M., Blaser P., Pöppelmeier F., Goepfert T. J., Stocker T. F. and Lippold J., 2020. Inverse response of 231Pa/230Th to variations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic intermediate water. Geo-Marine Letters, 40, 75–87.
  • Lerner P., Marchal O., Lam P. J., Gardner W., Richardson M. J. and Mishonov A., 2020. A model study of the relative influences of scavenging and circulation on 230Th and 231Pa in the western North Atlantic. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 155, 103159.
  • Gdaniec S., Roy-Barman M., Levier M., Valk O., van der Loeff M. R., Foliot L., Dapoigny A., Missiaen L., Mörth C.-M. and Andersson P. S., 2020. 231Pa and 230Th in the Arctic Ocean: Implications for boundary scavenging and 231Pa/230Th fractionation in the Eurasian Basin. Chemical Geology, 532, 119380.


  • Süfke F., Pöppelmeier F.,Goepfert T., Regelous M., Koutsodendris A., Blaser P., Gutjahr M., Lippold J., 2019. Constraints on the northwestern Atlantic deep water circulation from 231Pa/230Th during the last 30,000 years. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 34, 1945–1958.
  • Lippold, J., Pöppelmeier, F., Süfke, F., Gutjahr, M., Goepfert, T.J., Blaser, P., Friedrich, O., Link, J.M., Wacker, L., Rheinberger, S., Jaccard, S.L., 2019. Constraining the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the Holocene. Geophysical Research Letters 46, 11338-11346.
  • Jerome S., Bobin C., Cassette P., Dersch R., Galea R., Liu H., Honig A., Keightley J., Kossert K., Liang J., Marouli M., Michotte C., Pommé S., Röttger S., Williams R. and Zhang M., 2020. Half-life determination and comparison of activity standards of 231Pa. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 155, 108837.
  • Grenier M., François R., Soon M., Rutgers van der Loeff M., Yu X., Valk O., Not C., Moran S. B., Edwards R. L., Lu Y., Lepore K. and Allen S. E., 2019. Changes in Circulation and Particle Scavenging in the Amerasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean over the Last Three Decades Inferred from the Water Column Distribution of Geochemical Tracers. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 9338-9363.
  • García-Torano, E., Crespo, T., Marouli, M., Jobbágy, V., Pommé, S., Ivanov, P., 2019. Alpha-particle emission probabilities of 231Pa derived from first semiconductor spectrometric measurements. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 154, 108863.
  • Essex, R. M., Williams, R. W., Treinen, K. C., Collé, R., Fitzgerald, R., Galea, R., Keightley, J., LaRosa, J., Laureano-Pérez, L., Nour, S., Pibida, L. 2019. Preparation and calibration of a 231Pa reference material. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry.
  • Lund, D. C., Pavia, F. J., Seeley, E. I., McCart, S.E., Rafter, P. A., Farley, K. A., Asimow, P. D., Anderson, R. F. 2019. Hydrothermal scavenging of 230Th on the Southern East Pacific Rise during the last deglaciation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 510, 64-72.
  • Thiagarajan, N., McManus, J. F. 2019. Productivity and sediment focusing in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific during the last 30,000 years. Deep Sea Research Part I, 147, 100-110.
  • Medley, P., Tims, S. G., Froehlich, M. B., Fifield, L. K., Bollhöfer, A., Wallner, A., Pavetich, S. 2019. Development of 231Pa AMS measurements to improve radiological dose assessment from uranium mining and milling. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 1, 66-69.
  • Obert, J. C., Scholz, D., Felis, T., Lippold, J., Jochum, K. P., Andreae, M. O. 2019. Improved constrains on open-system processes in fossil reef corals by combined Th/U, Pa/U and Ra/Th dating: A case study from Aqaba, Jordan. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 245, 459-478.


  • Hoffmann, S. S., McManus, J. F., Swank, E. 2018. Evidence for Stable Holocene Basin-Scale Overturning Circulation Despite Variable Currents Along the Deep Western Boundary of the North Atlantic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 45 (24), 13,427-13,436
  • Pavia, F., Anderson, R., Vivancos, S., Fleisher, M., Lam, P., Lu, Y., Cheng, H., Zhang, P., Edwards, R.L., 2018. Intense hydrothermal scavanging of 230Th and 231Pa in the deep Southeast Pacific. Marine Chemistry 201, 212-228.
  • Gdaniec, S., Roy-Barman, M., Foliot, L., Thil, F., Dapoigny, A., Burckel, P., Garcia-Orellana, J., Masque, P., Mörth, C.-M., Andersson, P.S., 2018. Thorium and protactinium isotopes as tracer of marine particle fluxes and deep water circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Chemistry 199, 12-23.
  • Ng, H.C., Robinson, L., McManus, J.F., Mohamed, K.J., Jacobel, A.W., Ivanovic, R.F., Gregoire, L.J., Chen, T., 2018. Coherent deglacial changes in western Atlantic Ocean circulation. Nature Communications, 9 (2947).
  • Missiaen, L., Pichat, S., Waelbroeck, C., Douville, E., Bordier, L., Dapoigny, A., Thil, F., Foliot, L., Wacker, L., 2018. Downcore variations of sedimentary detrital (238U/232Th) ratio: implications on the use of 230Thxs and 231Paxs to reconstruct sediment flux and ocean circulation. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 19 (8), 2560-2573.
  • Deng, F., Henderson, G., Castrillejo, M., Perez, F. F., 2018. Evolution of 231Pa and 230Th in overflow waters of the North Atlantic. Biogeosciences 15, 7299-7313.
  • Hulten, v. M., Dutay, J-C., Roy-Barman, M., 2018. A global scavenging and circulation ocean model of thorium-230 and protactinium-231 with improved particle dynamics (NEMO-ProThorP 0.1). Geoscientific Model Development, 11, 3537-3556.
  • Treinen, K. C., Gaffney, A. M., Rolison, J. M., Samperton, K. M., McHugh, K. C., Miller, M. L., Williams, R. W., 2018. Improved protactinium spike calibration method applied to 231Pa-235U age-dating of certified reference material for nuclear forensics. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry (2018).
  • Valk, O., Rutgers van der Loeff, M. M., Geibert, W., Gdaniec, S., Rijkenberg, M. J. A., Moran, S. B., Lepore, K., Edwards, R. L., Lu, Y., Puigcorbé, V., 2018. Importance of hydrothermal vents in scavenging removal of 230Th in the Nansen Basin. Geophysical Research Letters, 45 (19), 10539-10548.
  • Obert, J. C., Scholz, D., Lippold, J., Felis, T., Jochum, K. P., Andreae, M. O. 2018. Chemical separation and MC-ICPMS analysis of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotope ratios of carbonates. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 2018, 33, 1372-1383.
  • Waelbroeck, C., Pichat, S., Böhm, E., Lougheed, B. C., Faranda, D., Vrac, M., Vazquez Riveiros, N., Burckel, P., Lippold, J., Arz, H. W., Dokken, T., Thil, F., Dapoigny, A. 2018. Relative timing of precipitation and ocean circulation changes in the western equatorial Atlantic over the last 45 ky. Climate of the Past 14, 1315-1330.
  • Süfke, F., Lippold, J., Happel, S., 2018. Improved Separation of Pa from Th and U in Marine Sediments with TK400 Resin. Analytical Chemistry 90 (2), 1395-1401.


  • Lippold, J., Gutjahr, M., Blaser, P., Christner, E., de Carvalho Ferreira, M.L., Mulitza, S., Christl, M., Wombacher, F., Böhm, E., Antz, B., Cartapanis, O., Vogel, H., Jaccard, S.L., 2017. Corrigendum to “Deep water provenance and dynamics of the (de)glacial Atlantic meridional overturning circulation” [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 445 (2016) 68–78]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 458, 444-448.
  • Lynch-Stieglitz, J., 2017. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and Abrupt Climate Change. Annual Review of Marine Science 9, 83-104.
  • Costa, K. M., Jacobel, A. W., McManus, J. F., Anderson, R. F., Winckler, G., and Thiagarajan, N., 2017, Productivity patterns in the equatorial Pacific over the last 30,000 years: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, v. 31, no. 5, p. 850-865.
  • Rempfer, J., Stocker, T.F., Joos, F., Lippold, J., Jaccard, S.L., 2017. New insights into cycling of 231Pa and 230Th in the Atlantic Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 468, 27-37.
  • Mulitza, S., C. M. Chiessi, E. Schefuß, J. Lippold, D. Wichmann, B. Antz, A. Mackensen, A. Paul, M. Prange, K. Rehfeld, M. Werner, T. Bickert, N. Frank, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, R. C. Portilho-Ramos, A. O. Sawakuchi, M. Schulz, T. Schwenk, R. Tiedemann, M. Vahlenkamp, Y. Zhang 2017. Synchronous and proportional deglacial changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning and northeast Brazilian precipitation. Paleoceanography 32:6, 622-633.
  • Voigt, I., A.P.S. Cruz, S. Mulitza, A. Mackensen, J. Lippold, B. Antz, M. Zabel, Y. Zhang, C.F. Barbosa, A.A. Tisserand 2017. Variability in mid-depth ventilation of the western Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation. Paleoceanography 32:9, 948-965.
  • Lin, P., Xu, C., Zhang, S., Sun, L., Schwehr, K.A., Bretherton, L., Quigg, A., Santschi, P.H. 2017. Importance of coccolithophore-associated organic biopolymers for fractionating particle-reactive radionucluides (234Th, 233Pa, 210Pb, 210Po, and 7Be) in the ocean. Biogeosciences 122:8, 2033-2045.
  • Hillaire-Marcel, C., Ghaleb, B., de Vernal, A., Maccali, J., Cuny, K., Jacobel, A., Le Duc, C., McManus, J., 2017. A New Chronology of Late Quaternary Sequences From the Central Arctic Ocean Based in "Extinction Ages" of Their Excesses in 231Pa and 230Th. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 18:12, 4573-4585.
  • Luo, Y. 2017. Reinterpretation of oceanic 230Th profiles based on decadal export productivity (2003-2010). Scientific Reports 7, 505.
  • Gu, S., Liu, Z., 2017 231Pa/230Th in the ocean model of the Community Earth Model (CESM1.3). Geoscientific Model Development 10, 4723-4742.
  • Rolison, J. M., Treinen, K. C., McHugh, K. C., Gaffney, A. M., Williams, R. W., 2017. Application of the 226Ra-230Th-234U and 227Ac-231Pa-235U radiochronometers to uranium certified reference material. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 314 (3), 2459-2467.


  • Burckel, P., Waelbroeck, C., Luo, Y., Roche, D., Pichat, S., Jaccard, S.L., Gherardi, J., Govin, A., Lippold, J., Thil, F., 2016. Changes in the geometry and strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the last glacial (20-50 ka). Climate of the Past 12, 2061–2075.
  • Henry, L.G., McManus, J.F., Curry, W.B., Roberts, N.L., Piotrowski, A.M., Keigwin, L.D., 2016. North Atlantic ocean circulation and abrupt climate change during the last glaciation. Science, 353, 470-474.
  • Lippold, J., Gutjahr, M., Blaser, P., Christner, E., Ferreira, M.-L.C., Mulitza, S., Christl, M., Wombacher, F., Böhm, E., Antz, B., Cartapanis, O., Vogel, H., Jaccard, S., 2016. Deep water provenance and dynamics of the (de)glacial Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 445, 68-78.
  • Rutgers van der Loeff, M., Venchiarutti, C., Stimac, I., van Ooijen, J., Huhn, O., Rohardt, G., Strass, V., 2016. Meridional circulation across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current serves as a double 231Pa and 230Th trap. Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
  • Turner, S., Kokfelt, T., Hoernle, K., Lundstrom, C., Hauff, F., 2016. 231Pa systematics in postglacial volcanic rocks from Iceland. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 185, 129-140.
  • Costa, K.M., McManus, J.F., Anderson, R.F., Ren, H., Sigman, D.M., Winckler, G., Fleisher, M.Q., Marcantonio, F., Ravelo, A.C., 2016. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age. Nature 529, 519-522.


  • Böhm, E., Lippold, J., Gutjahr, M., Frank, M., Blaser, P., Antz, B., Fohlmeister, J., Frank, N., Andersen, M.B., Deininger, M., 2015. Strong and deep Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the last glacial cycle. Nature 517, 73-76.
  • Burckel, P., Waelbroeck, C., Gherardi, J.M., Pichat, S., Arz, H., Lippold, J., Dokken, T., Thil, F., 2015. Atlantic Ocean circulation changes preceded millennial tropical South America rainfall events during the last glacial. Geophysical Research Letters 42, 2014GL062512.
  • Dutay, J.C., Tagliabue, A., Kriest, I., van Hulten, M.M.P., 2015. Modelling the role of marine particle on large scale 231Pa, 230Th, Iron and Aluminium distributions. Progress in Oceanography 133, 66-72.
  • Hayes, C., Anderson, R.F., Fleisher, M.Q., Huang, K.-F., Robinson, L.F., Lu, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Moran, S.B., 2015a. 230Th and 231Pa on GEOTRACES GA03, the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic transect, and implications for modern and paleoceanographic chemical fluxes. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 116, 29-41.
  • Hayes, C., Anderson, R.F., Fleisher, M.Q., Vivancos, S.M., Lam, P.J., Ohnemus, D.C., Huang, K.-F., Robinson, L.F., Lu, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Moran, S.B., 2015b. Intensity of Th and Pa scavenging partitioned by particle chemistry in the North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Chemistry 170, 49-60.
  • Jonkers, L., Zahn, R., Thomas, A., Henderson, G., Abouchami, W., François, R., Masque, P., Hall, I.R., Bickert, T., 2015. Deep circulation changes in the central South Atlantic during the past 145 kyrs reflected in a combined 231Pa/230Th, Neodymium isotope and benthic record. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 419, 14-21.
  • Luo, Y., Lippold, J., 2015. Controls on 231Pa and 230Th in the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 42, 5942-5949.


  • Bradtmiller, L., McManus, J.F., Robinson, L.F., 2014. 231Pa/230Th evidence for a weakened but persistent Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich Stadial 1. Nature Communications 5, 5817.
  • Deng, F., Thomas, A., Rijkenberg, M., Henderson, G., 2014. Controls on seawater 231Pa, 230Th and 232Th concentrations along the flow paths of deep waters in the Southwest Atlantic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 390, 93-102.
  • Hayes, C., Anderson, R., Fleisher, M., Serno, S., Winckler, G., Gersonde, R., 2014. Biogeography in 231Pa/230Th ratios and a balanced 231Pa budget for the Pacific Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 391, 307-318.
  • Roberts, N., McManus, J., Piotrowski, A., McCave, N., 2014. Advection and scavenging controls of Pa/Th in the northern NE Atlantic. Paleoceanography 29, 668–679.
  • Lin, P., Guo, L., Chen, M., 2014. Adsorption and fractionation of thorium and protactinium on nanoparticles in seawater. Marine Chemistry 162, 50-59.


  • Hayes, C., Anderson, R., Jaccard, S., François, R., Fleisher, M., Soon, M., Gersonde, R., 2013. A new perspective on boundary scavenging in the North Pacific Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 369–370, 86-97.
  • Hoffmann, S., McManus, J., Curry, W., Brown-Leger, L.S., 2013. Persistent export of 231Pa from the deep central Arctic Ocean over the past 35,000 years. Nature 497, 603-607.
  • Lam P. J., Robinson L. F., Blusztajn J., Li C., Cook M. S., McManus J. F., Keigwin L. D., 2013. Transient stratification as the cause of the North Pacific productivity spike during deglaciation. Nature Geoscience 6, 622–626.


  • Anderson, R.F., Fleisher, M.Q., Robinson, L.F., Edwards, L., Hoff, J.A., Moran, S., Rutgers vd Loeff, M., Thomas, A., Roy-Barman, M., Francois, R., 2012. GEOTRACES Intercalibration of 230Th, 232Th, 231Pa and prospects for 10Be. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 10, 179-213.
  • Auro, M., Robinson, L., Burke, A., Bradtmiller, L., Fleisher, M., Anderson, R., 2012. Improvements to 232-thorium, 230-thorium, and 231-protactinium analysis in seawater arising from GEOTRACES intercalibration. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 10, 464–474.
  • Bourne, M., Thomas, A., Niocaill, C., Henderson, G., 2012. Improved determination of marine sedimentation rates using 230Thxs. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 13, Q09017.
  • Lippold, J., Luo, Y., Francois, R., Allen, S., Gherardi, J., Pichat, S., Hickey, B., Schulz, H., 2012a. Strength and geometry of the glacial Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Nature Geoscience 5, 813-816.
  • Lippold, J., Mulitza, S., Mollenhauer, G., Weyer, S., Christl, M., 2012b. Boundary scavenging at the east Atlantic margin does not negate use of Pa/Th to trace Atlantic overturning. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 333–334, 317-331.
  • Okubo, A., Obata, H., Gamo, T., Yamada, M., 2012. 230Th and 232Th distributions in mid-latitudes of the North Pacifc Ocean: Effect of bottom scavenging. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 339, 139-150.
  • van Calsteren, P., Thomas, L., 2012. Quantitation of protactinium, 231Pa in abyssal carbonate. J. Anal. At. Spectrom 27.


  • Burke, A., Marchal, O., Bradtmiller, L., McManus, J., François, R., 2011. Application of an inverse method to interpret 231Pa/230Th observations from marine sediments. Paleoceanography 26, PA1212.
  • Guihou, A., Pichat, S., Govin, A., Nave, S., Michel, E., Duplessy, J.-C., Telouk, P., Labeyrie, L., 2011. Enhanced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation supports the Last Glacial Inception. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 1576-1582.
  • Kretschmer, S., Geibert, W., Loeff, M.R.v.d., C.Schnabel, Xu, S., Mollenhauer, G., 2011. Fractionation of 230Th, 231Pa, and 10Be induced by particle size and composition within an opal-rich sediment of the Atlantic Southern Ocean. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 6971–6987.
  • Lippold, J., Gherardi, J., Luo, Y., 2011. Testing the 231Pa/230Th paleocirculation proxy - A data versus 2D model comparison. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L20603.
  • Wan Mahmood, Z. U. Y., Mohamed, C. A. R., Ahmad, Z., Ishak, A. K., Mohamed, N., 2011. Variation of 231Pa, 230Th and 231Paex/230Thex in surface sediments of the Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 289(1), 91-95.


  • Christl, M., Lippold, J., Hofmann, A., Wacker, L., Lahaye, Y., Synal, H., 2010. 231Pa/230Th: a proxy for upwelling off the coast of West Africa. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 268, 1159–1162.
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